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It’s too late to change the stories of these women, but it is not too late to save the lives of girls who follow in their footsteps.

THIS IS A DRAFT ONLY OF TEXT FROM WHICH I HAVE TO YET EXTRACT THE RELATIVE INFORMATION FOR TOPIC BEING DISCUSSED. IN THE MEANTIME READ WHAT YOU LIKE

With three months left of 2019, 55 Australian women have been lost to alleged acts of murder or manslaughter. And now is the deadliest time to be female. Australian Government report with statistics to follow>

AUSTRALIAN MURDERS AT HOME-MORE TO COME

This report builds on the AIHW’s inaugural Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018 report (AIHW 2018b). It presents new information on vulnerable groups, such as children and young women. It examines elder abuse in the context of family, domestic and sexual violence, and includes new data on telephone and web-based support services, community attitudes, sexual harassment and stalking. It also includes the latest data on homicides, child protection, hospitals and specialist homelessness services.Family violence refers to violence between family members, typically where the perpetrator exercises power and control over another person. The most common and pervasive instances occur in intimate (current or previous) partner relationships and are usually referred to as domestic violence.

Sexual violence refers to behaviours of a sexual nature carried out against a person’s will. It can be perpetrated by a current or previous partner, other people known to the victim, or strangers.Some groups are more vulnerable. Vulnerable group. Key statistics .>Children. Around 2.5 million adults have experienced physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 15. Most often, a parent was the perpetrator of physical abuse and someone known to the child (not a family member) the perpetrator of sexual abuse (ABS 2017c).Many children have witnessed violence: 418,000 women and 92,200 men who had experienced violence from a previous partner said the children in their care had witnessed this violence (ABS 2017c).In 2016–17, there were 288 hospitalisations of children for abuse injuries perpetrated by a parent (217 hospitalisations) or other family member (71 hospitalisations)(AIHW analysis of National Hospital Morbidity Database).In 2017–18, 22% (26,500) clients seeking specialist homelessness services as a result of family or domestic violence were aged 0–9 (AIHW 2019d).In 2017–18, 159,000 children received child protection services: the rate of children receiving these services rose from 26 per 1,000 children in 2012–13 to 29 per 1,000 in 2017–18 (AIHW 2017, 2019b).Young womenYoung women aged 18–34 were 2.7 times as likely as those aged 35 and over to have experienced intimate partner violence in the 12 months before the 2016 PSS (ABS 2018a).In 2017, young women aged 15–34 accounted for more than half (53%, or 11,000) of all police-recorded female sexual assault victims (ABS 2018b).

Older peopleIn 2017–18, more than 10,900 calls were made to elder abuse helplines across Australia. Female victims outnumbered male victims in each state and the proportion of victims generally rose with age. Emotional and financial abuse were the most common types of elder abuse reported.People with disabilityWhen compared with people without disability, people with disability were 1.8 times as likely to have experienced physical and/or sexual violence from a partner in the previous year, and 1.7 times as likely to have experienced sexual violence (including assault and threats) since the age of 15 (ABS 2018a).People from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Between March 2013 and June 2016, the Australian Federal Police received 116 case referrals for forced marriage involving young females. These commonly involved Australian citizens under the age of 18 with relatives alleged to have organised a marriage for them overseas without their full and free consent (IDC ICoHTaS 2016).continued

Vulnerable groupKey statisticsLGBTIQ+ peoplePeople identifying with diverse sexual orientation were 1.7 times as likely to have experienced workplace sexual harassment in the 5 years before the survey as people identifying as heterosexual (AHRC 2018). Women who identified as lesbian, bisexual, and mainly heterosexual were twice as likely to report physical abuse by a partner as women who identify as exclusively heterosexual (Szalacha et al. 2017). People in rural and remote Australia…People living outside Major cities were 1.4 times as likely to have experienced partner violence since the age of 15 as people living in Major cities (ABS 2018a).People in Remote and Very remote areas were 24 times as likely to be hospitalised for domestic violence as people in Major cities (AIHW analysis of National Hospital Morbidity Database).

Child abuse related stock image. [AAP ]

People from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. People living in the most disadvantaged areas of Australia are 1.5 times as likely to experience partner violence as those living in areas of least disadvantage (ABS 2018a).Indigenous AustraliansIndigenous adults were 32 times as likely to be hospitalised for family violence as non-Indigenous adults (AIHW analysis of National Hospital Morbidity Database). In 2017–18, 25% of Indigenous specialist homelessness services clients sought assistance for family violence (AIHW 2019d).In 2017–18, 16% (48,000) Indigenous children received child protection services—a rate 8 times as high as non-Indigenous children (AIHW 2019b).Stable rates of partner violence contrast with falling rates of overall violenceWhile national population surveys show that rates of partner violence and sexual violence have remained stable since 2005, total violence from any person has declined significantly over this period. Despite these relatively stable population survey rates, the number of people accessing services due to family, domestic and sexual violence continues to rise: such as police, hospital, child protection and homeless services.

The number of sexual assault victims recorded by police continues to rise . Police recorded 25,000 victims of sexual assault in 2017—8% more than the 23,000 victims in 2016 and the highest number since the data series began in 2010 (ABS 2018b). Around 8 in 10 (82%, or 21,000) victims were female. More women are being hospitalised due to family and domestic violence In 2016–17, there were 6,300 hospitalisations of adults aged 15 and over for assault injuries due to family and domestic violence: 4,600 hospitalisations for women and 1,700 hospitalisations for men. From 2014–15 to 2016–17, the rate of hospitalisation of women assaulted by a partner rose by 23%, whereas the rate for men remained relatively stable (AIHW analysis of National Hospital Morbidity Database).More people are accessing specialist homelessness services due to family and domestic violence. In 2017–18, more than 121,000 (42%) of people assisted by specialist homelessness services had experienced family and domestic violence. Of these, more than 3 in 4 (78%, or 94,100) were female.The rate of females assisted by homelessness services who had experienced family and domestic violence rose by 32% between 2013–14 and 2017–18. For males, this rate rose by 40% (AIHW 2018c, 2019d).

The toll of family, domestic and sexual violence is substantialThe impacts of family, domestic and sexual violence can be serious and long-lasting, affecting an individual’s health, wellbeing, education, relationships and housing outcomes (AIHW 2018b). Most of the available evidence on the impacts focus on women and children. Several studies show that women who experience childhood abuse have worse physical and mental health in adulthood (Loxton et al. 2006). Women who experienced domestic violence during pregnancy were more likely to suffer depression, and other physical and psychological health problems, compared with women who did not experience violence (Brown et al. 2015). Partner violence is a major health risk factor for women aged 25-44—with mental health conditions being the largest contributor to the disease burden from partner violence, followed by anxiety disorders and suicide and self-inflicted injuries.

Child abuse and neglect is the highest health risk factor for women aged 0-44 and boys aged 0–14—with suicide and self-inflicted injuries being the largest contributor to the disease burden, followed by depressive disorders and anxiety disorders (AIHW forthcoming 2019).1 woman is killed every 9 days and 1 man is killed every 29 days by a partner Between 2014–15 and 2015–16, the National Homicide Monitoring Program recorded 218 domestic homicide victims from 198 domestic homicide incidents. Over half (59%, or 129) victims were female and 64% (82) of these female victims were killed by an intimate partner. There were also 89 male domestic homicide victims, with over 1 in 4 (28%, or 25) killed by an intimate partner (AIC unpublished).

Between 2000–01 and 2011–12, 238 incidents of filicide (the killing of a child by a parent or parent-equivalent), in which 284 victims were killed, were recorded by police in Australia. Nearly half of children killed by a parent were killed by their custodial mother (Brown et al. 2019). More people are recognising non-physical behaviours as violence Most Australians have an accurate knowledge of what constitutes violence against women and do not endorse this violence. More Australians are recognising non-physical behaviours as violence; in 2017, 81% agreed that controlling or denying a partner money was a form of violence—up from 70% in 2013. While most people’s knowledge of violence against women has increased, there are still some areas for concern—1 in 3 Australians are unaware that women are more likely to be sexually assaulted by a known person than a stranger; 2 in 5 are unsure where to access help for domestic violence (Webster et al. 2018). Key data gaps and data development activities

Notable information gaps exist on various aspects of family, domestic and sexual violence, including inconsistent identification and lack of comparability between data sets; limited information about vulnerable populations; and a lack of data about pathways, impacts and outcomes for victims, perpetrators and their children.The AIHW is working with data providers to improve the identification and collection of family, domestic and sexual violence data in a range of areas, including hospitals, child protection, and homelessness services. The AIHW is also working to fill data gaps in perpetrator interventions and family, domestic and sexual violence services.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 20191 IntroductionFamily, domestic and sexual violence is a major health and welfare issue in Australia. It occurs across all ages and all sociodemographic groups, but mainly affects women and children. This report continues the national story that the AIHW first explored in Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018 (AIHW 2018b). It examines the prevalence and impact of family, domestic and sexual violence among at-risk groups, including children, young women, people with disability, and older Australians, and has new data on sexual harassment, including sexual harassment in the workplace, and stalking.

Specifically, it includes:• new analyses from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2016 Personal Safety Survey (PSS) and the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health• new data from telephone helplines, web-based support services, and family and relationship services that provide information about people who seek help because of family, domestic and sexual violence• updated data on homicides, child protection, hospitals and specialist homelessness services• updated data on community attitudes from the 2017 National Community Attitudes towards Violence against Women Survey• an update on what is being done to fill the data gaps identified in the 2018 report. What is family, domestic and sexual violence?

Violence can be described in many ways, and definitions vary according to the legislation in each Australian state and territory (COAG 2011). Family, domestic and sexual violence sits in the broader context of all violence, and can encompass a range of behaviours. Consistent with Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, this report focuses on aspects of family violence, domestic violence and sexual violence. Box 1.1 provides details of the definitions used in this report and provides examples of acts and behaviours associated with family, domestic and sexual violence. Figure 1.1 shows the intersection between the different types of family, domestic and sexual violence. Note that institutionalised abuse and broader categories of violence are not in scope for this report.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019Box 1.1: Family, domestic and sexual violence definitions and examplesFamily violence refers to violence between family members, typically where the perpetrator exercises power and control over another person. Family violence is the preferred term for violence between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, as it covers the extended family and kinship relationships in which violence may occur (COAG 2011).For this report, domestic violence is considered a subset of family violence and typically refers to violent behaviour between current or previous intimate partners. In some data collections, domestic violence is used more broadly and can include violence between any family members. Sexual violence refers to behaviours of a sexual nature carried out against a person’s will. It can be perpetrated by a current or previous partner, other known people, or strangers. Dating violence refers to violence from a current or previous boyfriend, girlfriend or date. It has been included in this report as it is particularly relevant to younger people who are less likely to be in more formal living arrangements with their intimate partners.

Acts and behaviours associated with family, domestic and sexual violence vary in type, duration, intensity and frequency and are further described below:Physical violence can include slaps, hits, punches, being pushed down stairs or across a room, choking and burns, as well as the use of knives, firearms and other weapons. Sexual violence can include rape; sexual abuse; unwanted sexual advances or harassment and intimidation at work and elsewhere; being forced to watch or engage in pornography; sexual coercion; having sexual intercourse because you are afraid of what your partner might do; forced prostitution; and trafficking. Psychological and emotional abuse can include intimidation, belittling, humiliation, coercive control and the effects of financial, social and other non-physical forms of abuse.The types of violence described here are not an exhaustive list of all possible acts and behaviours that can be classified under the umbrella term of ‘family, domestic and sexual violence’. The term ‘violence’ also includes the attempt or threat of violence. Further details of the different types of violence are included in the Glossary. Sources: COAG 2011; VicHealth 2017; WHO et al. 2013.

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019. Family, domestic and sexual violence. Intimate partner violence, domestic violence and family violence include multiple types of violence and are defined by the perpetrator’s relationship to the victim. Sexual violence is a type of violence and is in scope of this report regardless of the perpetrator. Broader forms of violence—such as elder abuse or visa abuse—are only in scope if the abuse occurred in the context of family, domestic and sexual violence.2. Violence and abuse that occurs in institutional settings is not in scope of this report.How common is family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia?The Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018 report presented information from more than 20 data sources to build a picture of what is known about the nature and extent of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia. It also identified data gaps and emerging issues. The report found that, according to the 2016 Personal Safety Survey, around 1 in 6 (17%, or 1.6 million) women and 1 in 16 (6.1%, or 548,000) men had experienced physical or sexual violence from a current or previous cohabiting partner since the age of 15

Women were more likely to experience violence from a known person and in their home, while men were more likely to experience violence from a stranger and in a public place (ABS 2017c; AIHW 2018b). All violenceViolence from a family memberSexual violenceInstitutionalisedabuseViolence from apartner (domesticviolence or intimatepartner violence)

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019Box 1 .2: How common is family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia? Source: ABS 2017c.Government policiesFamily, domestic and sexual violence is a priority for Australian and state and territory governments. The National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children—2010–2022 (the National Plan) was released in 2011 with a vision that Australian women and their children could live free from violence in safe communities. It focuses on the 2 main types of violence experienced by women—family/domestic violence and sexual assault—and aims to achieve a ‘significant and sustained reduction in violence against women and their children’ (COAG 2011). The National Plan provides a framework for governments to deliver on 4 action plans over the 12 years.have experienced physical or sexual violence by a current or previous partner since the age of 151 in 6 women17% or 1 .6 millionhave experienced emotional abuse by a current or previous partner since the age of 15 1 in 4 women23% or 2 .2 million1 in 5 women18% or 1 .7 millionhave experienced sexual violence since the age of 151 in 16 men6 .1% or 548,0001 in 6 men16% or 1 .4 million1 in 20 men4 .7% or 429,0001 in 6 women16% or 1 .5 million  were physically or sexually abused before age of 15….1 in 9 men11% or 992,000

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019The Third Action Plan 2016–19The Third Action Plan 2016–19 of the National Plan outlined what governments, communities, businesses and individuals could do to reduce violence across 6 National Priority Areas: • prevention and early intervention• Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and their children• greater support and choice• sexual violence• responding to children living with violence • keeping perpetrators accountable across all systems (COAG 2016). The final, and Fourth Action Plan for 2019–22 will be released mid-2019, following endorsement by the Council of Australian Governments. The Australian Government is working closely and collaboratively with states and territories to develop the plan and finalise their contributions to making a significant and sustained reduction in violence against women and their children. The Fourth Action Plan will focus on: • prevention strategies for family and domestic violence in homes, work places and communities• the provision of safe spaces for people impacted by family and domestic violence• improvements to frontline services, including the national sexual assault, domestic and family violence counselling service, 1800RESPECT• provision of support and prevention strategies for Indigenous communities.

 

What the states and territories are doing… State and territory governments have a range of initiatives to prevent and respond to family, domestic and sexual violence that operate across a number of sectors, including health, justice and community services. This work aligns with the National Plan and includes: • New South Wales Domestic and Family Violence Blueprint for Reform 2016–2021• Ending Family Violence: Victoria’s Plan for Change • Queensland’s Domestic and Family Violence Prevention Strategy 2016–2026• Western Australia’s Family and Domestic Violence Prevention Strategy to 2022 • South Australia’s Women’s Safety Strategy 2011–2022• Safe Home, Safe Families: Tasmania’s Family Violence Action Plan 2015–2020 • ACT Government Response to Family Violence, 2016• The Northern Territory’s Domestic, Family and Sexual Violence Reduction Framework 2018–2028. More information about these government policies is in the Appendix.

6Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019Reporting on family, domestic and sexual violenceAs noted in Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia 2018, it can be difficult to accurately record the extent of family, domestic and sexual violence in the population. Incidents frequently occur behind closed doors and are often concealed by, and denied by, their perpetrators and sometimes by their victims. Data sources can only capture incidents that are disclosed by the individuals involved or recorded and/or reported to the relevant authorities (ABS 2017b).This report pulls together a range of data from national data collections and surveys, including data on prevalence and attitudes, hospital presentations, social support programs, recorded crime, corrections and specialised family, domestic and sexual violence services. Figure 1.2 shows the range of areas where data are drawn from. While no single data source can provide all the information needed to report on family, domestic and sexual violence, bringing together these data sources helps create a greater understanding of the subject (AIHW 2018b). Although this report focuses on national data, it also uses data from some smaller collections and explores available research to further our understanding of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia.

 

As many of the data sources collect information about female victims of intimate partner violence perpetrated by men, these incidents make up a large part of this report. However, the report includes information about men’s and children’s experiences of violence, and the experiences of specific population groups where data are available. Data on perpetrators are limited, but reported where available.Figure 1 .2: Key data sources for reporting on family, domestic and sexual violencePolice, courtand correctionsHomelessnessservicesSocial supportandFDSVservicesHospitalsChildprotectionservicesCoronersanddeathsSurveysandresearch

Family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia: continuing the national story 2019Data sources and supporting materials used in this reportThe names of the specific data sources used in this report are included in Figure 1.3 and further details for each data collection are available online at https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/domestic-violence/family-domestic-sexual-violence-australia-2019/contents/data-sources-monitoring-family-domestic-sexual-violence. Also available online are data tables for all the figures included in this report, at https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/domestic-violence/family-domestic-sexual-violence-australia-2019/data.

 

Figure 1 .3: National data sources used in this report for monitoring family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia New data sources• Elder abuse hotlines (various sources)• Family and relationship services, Relationships Australia 2017–18• AHRC National Survey on Sexual Harassment in Australian Workplaces, 2018• National Survey of Workers in the Domestic, Family and Sexual Violence SectorsUpdated data sources• National Community Attitudes towards Violence against Women Survey, 2017• ABS Recorded Crime—Victims, Australia, 2017• ABS Recorded Crime—Offenders, Australia, 2017–18• ABS Criminal Courts, 2017–18• AIHW Child Protection National Minimum Data Set, 2017–18• AIHW Specialist Homelessness Services Collection, 2017–18• AIHW National Hospital Morbidity Database, 2016–17• Australian Burden of Disease Study, 2018• Department of Human Services Centrelink Data, 2017–18Further analysis of existing data sources• ABS Personal Safety Survey, 2016• ABS National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey• Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health• Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

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