Rss

Archives for : June2019

18 Famous Women Who Explored Space-Their stories told.

On May 26, 1951, a girl born in Encino, California would grow up to become the first American woman in space. Though Sally Ride later inspired a whole generation of women to follow in her footsteps, she actually came from a long history of female astronomers and explorers.

**********************************************************************************

From the women who looked skyward centuries ago, to those who continue the legacy, here are 18 pioneers who left their mark on the world and in the stars.

**********************************************************************************

1 of 18

Hypatia

Alexandria, Egypt
Born c. 350-70; died 415 AD

Hypatia was a mathematician, astronomer, and Neo-platonic philosopher. Her father, the philosopher Theon, was a math professor and taught Hypatia everything he could about the sciences and philosophy, which eventually led to her securing a job at the Library of Alexandria. She also taught and wrote books on math, philosophy, and astronomy.

Hypatia designed an astrolabe and used it to chart the position of stars in the sky. She remains one of the earliest known female astronomers.

Sadly, Hypatia met her end when a Christian mob—who claimed she was a witch—murdered her. Some reports suggest she was killed on the orders of Cyril, a staunch Christian and the patriarch of Alexandria.

**********************************************************************************

2 of 18 Aglaonice

Thessaly, Greece
Birthdate unknown

Aglaonice was considered the first female astronomer in ancient Greece who focused her studies on the moon’s cyclical patterns.

Her lunar eclipse predictions were so accurate that many claimed she was a sorceress who had the power to hide the moon and make it reappear at her whim.

Due to her ‘magical’ reputation, Aglaonice became known as the leader of group of female astronomers called the “Witches of Thessaly.” There is a crater on Venus named after her that measures 38.9 miles in diameter.

**********************************************************************************

3 of 18

Cheomseongdae

Image Brendan O’RourkeGetty Images
Queen Seondeok of Silla

Silla (South Korea)
Born c. 595-610; died 647

Queen Seondeok (also stylized as Sondok) ruled Silla, one of the three Korean Kingdoms at the time, from 632 to 647—the first female ever do so in Korea.

Seondeok was instrumental in the construction of the 30-foot tall Cheomseongdae (“star-gazing tower”) Observatory, in 634. The Observatory is Asia’s oldest, longest-standing structure of its kind and was designated as one of South Korea’s National Treasures.

Seondeok, who never married or had children to inherit her throne, died of an unknown illness and her cousin, Jindeok, became her successor. Queen Jindeok was the second female ruler in Silla.

**********************************************************************************

4 of 18

image

Gavnø
Sophia Brahe

Sweden
Born 1556; died 1643

Although Brahe was born in Sweden, she was raised as a Danish noble because her father served as advisor to the king of Denmark.

Brahe helped her brother, Tycho, with his observations of the stars and helped him create what would serve as the foundation for today’s predictions for planetary orbit.

Because Sophia Tycho were nobles, their family expressed disdain at their interest in the sciences. Tycho encouraged his sister to continue learning, but to avoid astronomy to appease their family. She refused.

Brahe spent her own money to translate German and Latin texts so she could continue her studies in astronomy. She also studied horticulture and had an interest in medicine and chemistry.

Tycho and Sophia jointly discovered a supernova in the Cassiopeia constellation, which was named “Nova Stella.”

**********************************************************************************

5 of 18

Roger Ressmeyer/Corbis/VCG  Getty Images
Wang Zhenyi

China
Born 1768; died 1797

Zhenyi was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, and author of texts on the cosmos including Dispute of the Processions of the Equinoxes, Dispute of Longitude and Stars, and The Explanation of a Lunar Eclipse.

She lived during the Qing Dynasty and was self-educated, studying medicine, math, and geography in addition to astronomy.

Zhenyi was especially well-versed in both solar and lunar eclipses and the direction in which the planets revolved. One of her experiments consisted of creating a model of the Earth, Sun, and Moon (which she made using everyday items like a table and mirror) and acted as a visual aid to show people how eclipses worked.

Zhenyi’s research and writings, which included an easier-to-understand rewrite of the previously printed Principles of Calculation by a mathematician she admired, made her an acclaimed scholar.

**********************************************************************************

6 of 18

Bettmann Getty Images
Maria Mitchell

U.S.
Born 1818; died 1889

Mitchell was the first American female astronomer. She discovered a comet in 1847, which made her an overnight celebrity and led to her eventual election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She was the only woman to hold a position at the academy until 1943.

In 1865, Mitchell became a professor of astronomy at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie where she was named the director of Vassar’s Observatory.

When she discovered that her male colleagues were making more money than her, she asked for equal pay—and got it. In 1888, Mitchell decided to retire and died just a year later. To honor her groundbreaking strides, an asteroid, the 1455 Mitchella, and a crater on the Moon (Mitchell) were named after her.

**********************************************************************************

7 of 18

Boston Globe Getty Images
The Harvard Computers

The Harvard Computers were a group of women who analyzed images of the stars in the sky in order to categorize and better understand space.

One of the first women to become a “computer” was Williamina Fleming, the maid of Harvard Observatory’s director, Edward Charles Pickering.

Fleming is credited with discovering the Horsehead Nebula and creating a classification system for stars based on their temperature. Fleming’s efforts were instrumental in the 1890 publication of the Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra, which detailed the brightness, star type, and position of 10,000+ stars.

Another ‘computer’ was Annie Jump Cannon, a suffragist and successor to Edward Pickering. Cannon’s accomplishments include admittance to the Royal Astronomical Society in 1914, and an honorary doctorate from Groningen University in the Netherlands in 1921.

Fleming, Cannon, and company worked six days a week for a meager salary of 25 to 50 cents and hour—much less than their male counterparts.

Other prominent Harvard Computers include Antonia Maury, Anna Winlock, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Florence Cushman, Mary Anna Palmer Draper.

**********************************************************************************

8 of 18

Alex Wong Getty Images
Katherine Johnson

U.S.
Born 1918

Johnson’s calculations were instrumental in paving the path for the first and subsequent missions to send humans into space.

Johnson was a human computer who helped NASA develop computer programs to work on the calculations that she was completing manually, like wind gust alleviation.

When NASA was finally confident in the ability of its computers to complete calculations, John Glenn’s orbit was one of the first missions left to digital. Glenn refused to fly unless Johnson confirmed the computer’s calculations.

In 1986, Johnson retired from NASA, and in 2015, President Barack Obama presented her with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award offered in the U.S. Taraji P. Henson played Johnson in 2016’s Hidden Figures.

**********************************************************************************

9 of 18

Heritage Images Getty Images
Valentina Tereshkova

Russia
Born 1937

In 1963, Tereshkova became the very first woman in space. She boarded the Vostok 6, a Soviet spacecraft, and spent nearly three whole days in space. The barrier-breaking trip saw her orbit Earth 48 times before coming back home.

Tereshkova had no experience as a pilot before she was chosen to join the Soviet space program. However, her extensive experience parachute jumping (126 jumps to be exact) gave her an edge over the competition, because astronauts at the time had to parachute from their ships right before landing upon their return to Earth.

For nearly 40 years, the secret of Tereshkova’s near-crash remained classified. When her craft re-entered the Earth’s orbit, an error in the navigation software began moving her ship away from Earth. Tereshkova alerted the ground team, who fixed the algorithm, and the craft was able to safely land near today’s border between Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China.

**********************************************************************************

10 of 18

NASA
Valerie Thomas

U.S.
Born 1943

Thomas invented and patented the 3D Illusion Transmitter, which makes 3D TVs, MRIs, and other imaging possible. NASA still uses it today.

In the 1970s, Thomas managed the historic Landsat satellite program, which was the first satellite to send photos of space back to Earth.

She also assisted in developing program designs that helped further the research on Halley’s Comet. Plus, her computer program designs helped develop research on the ozone layer and satellite tech.

Thomas was the recipient of multiple awards including NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center Award of Merit and the NASA Equal Opportunity Medal. In 1995, she retired from NASA.

**********************************************************************************

11 of 18

Nur Photo Getty Images
Margaret Hamilton

U.S.
Born 1936

Hamilton was 24 when she started working at MIT as a programmer. She would eventually join the Charles Stark Draper Lab on campus and work on the Apollo space mission. Hamilton and her team were tasked with developing in-flight software—the same software that would eventually help put a man on the moon. Hamilton is credited for coining the term “software engineering.”

Hamilton was a dedicated scientist and mother—she would often bring her daughter to work with her. While her daughter napped, Hamilton plugged away. In reference to her own work and the work of her team, Hamilton said, “there was no choice but to be pioneers,” and that’s exactly what she was.

In 2016, former Obama presented Hamilton with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her tireless work.

**********************************************************************************

12 of 18

Bettmann Getty Images
Sally Ride

U.S.
Born 1951; died 2012

In the summer of 1983, Ride became the first American woman to go into space aboard the Challenger space shuttle, and the third woman to go into space overall (the other two were from the USSR).

Ride, a Stanford graduate, participated in two separate space voyages, having launched in the Challenger again in the fall of 1984. This second mission kept Ride in space for nine days, during which she used the robotic arm attached to the shuttle to remove chunks of ice that were stuck to the ship.

Ride was set to head out on a third mission that was cancelled due to the tragic Challenger explosion in 1986. Sadly, in 2012, she died of pancreatic cancer.

**********************************************************************************

13 of 18

Science & Society Picture Library Getty Images
Mae Carol Jemison

U.S.
Born 1956

Jemison was the first African American woman in space. She was part of the crew that rode on the Endeavour shuttle during its second mission.

Jemison, inspired by Ride’s jaunt into space, applied to NASA’s astronaut program and was selected as one of 15 candidates out of a pool of 2,000+ people. Mae’s yearlong training paid off when, in 1992, she was orbited the Earth 126 times aboard the Endeavour.

In 1993, Jemison left NASA and began teaching at Dartmouth. She also founded the Jemison Group—a company that encourages students to study the sciences—as well as an international science camp called The Earth We Share (TEWS) for teens.

**********************************************************************************

14 of 18

Encyclopaedia Britannica Getty Images
Sharon Christa McAuliffe

U.S.
Born 1948; died 1986

McAuliffe beat out 11,000+ applicants in a NASA competition to become the first teacher sent to space. The announcement was made by then-Vice President George H.W. Bush.

In early 1986, McAuliffe’s family and friends were at the Kennedy Space Center eagerly awaiting the launch of the Challenger, which was supposed to carry McAuliffe and six others up into space. McAuliffe’s students in Concord, NH., were also watching the launch when tragedy struck.

The Challenger exploded less than two minutes after lift off, killing everyone onboard. McAuliffe received a posthumous Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

The Christa McAuliffe Planetarium in New Hampshire and Christa McAuliffe Space Education Center in Utah were named in her honor.

**********************************************************************************

15 of 18

Bill Ingalls/NASA Getty Images
Peggy Whitson

U.S.
Born 1960

In 2008, Whitson (second from the bottom in the photo) became the first woman to command the International Space Station (ISS). Her career with NASA saw her spend 665 days in space, the most time for any NASA astronaut.

She also holds the record for most spacewalks by a woman with 10 departures from the ISS totaling 60 hours and 21 minutes, and recently became the oldest woman astronaut to reach orbit in 2016 at the age of 56.

Not all of her records were attained in space, though. Whitson was also the first woman to serve as the chief of NASA’s Astronaut Corps, a title she held from 2009 to 2012. She retired from NASA in the summer of 2018.

**********************************************************************************

16 of 18

Handout Getty Images
Katie Bouman

U.S.
Born 1989

Last month, the Event Horizon Telescope captured the first-ever image of a black hole—a scientific revolution that was made possible by a dedicated team of researchers, engineers, scientists, and so many more.

One member of the team who made the photo possible was Bouman, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard who assisted in creating the code that helped capture the image.

Bouman, whose background is in computer science and electrical engineering, was interested in “coming up with ways to see or measure things that are invisible.” Mission accomplished.

**********************************************************************************

17 of 18

Phillip Faraone Getty Images
Jill Tarter

U.S.
Born 1944

As an astronomer and co-founder of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute, Tarter is one of the foremost researchers seeking to find life on other planets.

Tarter attended Cornell as an undergraduate in the school’s engineering program—the only woman in a class of 300 students. When she attended grad school at UC Berkeley, the head of the astronomy department said that Tarter and the other two female students were lucky that there was room for them in the program since so many men were drafted for Vietnam.

Tarter has dedicated her life to exploring the mysteries of the cosmos. Her thirst for knowledge and tireless work have earned her numerous awards including the Adler Planetarium Women in Space Science Award (2003), two public service medals from NASA, a spot on Time‘s 2004 list of the 100 most influential people in the world.

In 2005, Asteroid 74824 Tarter was named after her.

**********************************************************************************

18 of 18

Interim Archives Getty Images
Ellen Ochoa

U.S.
Born 1958

Ochoa (left) attended San Diego State and received a Bachelor’s in physics before moving on to obtain a Master’s and Ph.D in electrical engineering from Stanford.

In 1988, she began working at NASA and moved up to serve as the 11th director of the Johnson Space Center. She was the Center’s first Hispanic director in addition to being its second female leader ever.

Ochoa was also the first Hispanic woman to go into space when she was selected to become an astronaut and had her first mission aboard the Discovery shuttle in 1993–a mission that lasted nine days.

She’s been to space four times and has logged almost 1,000 orbit hours, to boot.

RELATED TOPIS & LINKS
Henry Sapiecha

Essential Screening Tests Every Woman Needs to have

Why Screening Tests Are Very Important

Remember that old saying, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”? Getting checked early can help you stop diseases like cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis in the very beginning, when they’re easier to treat. Screening tests can spot illnesses, diseases & conditions even before you have symptoms. Which screening tests you require depends on your age, family history, your own health history, and other risk factors.

Breast Cancer

The earlier you find breast cancer, the better your chance of a cure. Small breast-cancers are less likely to spread to lymph nodes and vital organs like the lungs and brain. If you’re in your 20s or 30s, some experts recommend that your health care provider perform a breast exam as part of your regular check-up say every one to three years. You may require more frequent screenings if you have any extra risk factors.

Screening With Mammography

Mammograms are low-dose X-rays that can often find a lump before you ever feel it, though normal results don’t completely rule out cancer. Some experts recommend that while you’re in your 40s you should have a mammogram once a  year. Then during your 50s through your 70s, you can switch to every other year. Of course, your doctor may recommend more frequent screenings if you’re in a higher risk bracket.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer (pictured) is quite easy to prevent. The cervix is a narrow passageway between the uterus (where a baby grows) and the vagina (the birth canal). Your doctor may use Pap smears and or HPV testing to screen. Pap smears find abnormal cells on the cervix, which can be removed before they ever turn into cancer. The main cause of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV), a form of STD.

Screening for Cervical Cancer

During a Pap smear, your doctor scrapes some cells off your cervix and sends them to a lab for analysis. Your doctor will talk to you about whether you need a pap test alone or in combination with HPV testing. She/he will also talk to you about how often you need to be screened.  If you’re sexually active with different partners and at risk, you’ll need vaginal testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea every year.

Vaccines for Cervical Cancer

HPV vaccines may protect women under 26 from several strains of HPV. The vaccines don’t protect against all the cancer-causing strains of HPV, however, and not all cervical cancers start with HPV. So routine cervical cancer screening is still very important.

Osteoporosis & Fractured Bones

Osteoporosis is a state when a person’s bones are weak and fragile. After menopause, women start to lose more bone mass, but men get osteoporosis, too. The first symptom is often a painful break after even a minor fall, blow, or sudden twist. In Americans age 50 and over, the disease contributes to about half the breaks in women and 1 in 4 among men. Fortunately, you can prevent and treat osteoporosis succesfully.

Osteoporosis Screening Tests

A special type of X-ray unit called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can measure bone strength and find osteoporosis before breaks happen. It can also help predict the risk of future breaks. This screening is recommended for all women age 65 and above. If you have risk factors for osteoporosis, you may need to start sooner.

Skin Cancer

There are several kinds of skin cancers, and early treatment can be effective for them all. The most dangerous is melanoma (shown here), which affects the cells that produce a person’s skin coloring. Sometimes persons have an inherited risk for this type of cancer, which may increase with overexposure to the sun. Basal cell and squamous cell are common non-melanoma skin cancers. www.newcures.info

Screening for Skin Cancer

Watch out for any changes in your skin markings, including moles and freckles. Pay close attention to changes in their shape, color, and size. Some experts recommend that you should also get your skin checked by a dermatologist or other health professional during your regular physicals.

High Blood Pressure

As you age, your risk of high blood pressure increases, especially if you are overweight or have certain bad health habits. High blood pressure can cause life-threatening heart attacks or strokes without any warning. So working with your doctor to measue & control it can save your life. Lowering your blood pressure can also prevent long-term dangers like heart disease and kidney failure.

Screening for High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure readings include two numbers. The first (systolic) is the pressure of your blood when your heart is beating. The second (diastolic) is the pressure between the beats. Normal adult blood pressure is less than 120/80. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is 130/80 or above. In between is considered elevated, a sort of early warning stage. Ask your doctor how often to have your blood pressure checked.

Cholesterol Levels

High cholesterol can cause plaque to clog your arteries (seen here in orange). Plaque may build up for several years without symptoms, eventually causing a heart attack or stroke. High blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking can all cause plaque to build up, too. It’s a condition called hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis. Lifestyle changes and medications can often lower your risk.

Checking Your Cholesterol

To get your cholesterol checked, you’ll need to fast for 12 hours. Then you’ll take a blood test that measures total cholesterol, LDL “bad” cholesterol, HDL “good” cholesterol, and triglycerides (blood fat). Your doctor will talk to you about when to start and how often to check your levels.

Type 2 Diabetes

One-third of USA citizens with diabetes don’t even know they have it. Diabetes can cause heart or kidney disease, stroke, blindness from damage to the blood vessels of the retina (shown here), and other serious problems. You can control diabetes with diet, exercise, weight loss, and medication, especially when you find it early. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. Type 1 diabetes is commanly diagnosed in children and young adults.

Screening for Diabetes

You’ll probably have to fast for up to eight hours or so before having your blood tested for diabetes. A blood sugar level of 100-125 may show prediabetes; 126 or higher may mean diabetes. Other tests include the A1C test and the oral glucose tolerance test. Your doctor will talk to you about when to commence and how often to check your levels. Talk to your doctor about getting tested if you have a higher risk, like a family history of diabetes.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. It’s spread through sharing blood or bodily fluids with an infected person, such as through unprotected sex or dirty needles. Pregnant women with HIV can pass the infection to their babies. There is still no cure or vaccine, but early treatment with anti-HIV medications can help the immune system fight off the virus.

HIV Screening Tests

HIV can be symptom-free for many years. The only way to find out if you have the virus is with blood tests. The ELISA or EIA test looks for antibodies to HIV. If you get a positive result, you’ll need a second test to confirm the results. Everyone who is sexually active should get regularly tested. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen for HIV infection in adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years. Younger adolescents and older adults who are at increased risk should also be screened.

Preventing the Spread of HIV

Most newly infected people test positive around two months after being exposed to the virus. But in rare cases it can take up to maybe six months to develop HIV antibodies. Use a condom during sex to avoid getting or passing on HIV or other STDs. If you have HIV and are pregnant, talk with your doctor about reducing the risk to your unborn infant.

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Most colon cancers come from polyps (abnormal masses) that grow on the inner lining of the large intestine. The polyps may or may not be cancerous. If they are, the cancer can spread to other parts of the body. Removing polyps early, before they become cancerous, can prevent it all together.

Screening for Colorectal Cancer

A colonoscopy is a common screening test for colorectal cancer. While you’re mildly sedated, a doctor inserts a small flexible tube equipped with a camera into your colon. If she/he finds a polyp, she can often remove it right then. Another type of test is a flexible sigmoidoscopy, which looks into the lower part of the colon. If you’re at average risk, screening usually starts at age 50. Your doctor may also screen you with different kinds of DIY take home stool cards.

Glaucoma

Glaucoma results from when pressure builds up inside your eye. Without treatment, it may damage the optic nerve and cause blindness. Often, it produces no symptoms until your vision has already been damaged.

Glaucoma Screening

How often you should get your eyes checked depends on your age and risk factors. They include being African-American or Hispanic, being over 60, eye injury, steroid use, and a family history of glaucoma. Talk to your medical professional about how often and when to start glaucoma screening.

Ask Your Doctor About Screenings

It’s good health sense to talk with your doctor about screening tests. Some tests, such as a Pap test or breast exam, should be a routine part of every woman’s health protocol. Other tests may be necessary based on your age & risk factors. Proper screening won’t always prevent a disease, but it can quite often find a disease early enough to give you a much better chance of overcoming it.

RELATED STORIES & LINKS

Henry Sapiecha

Teenager Noa Pothoven of Arnhem in the Netherlands is legally euthanised

Noa Pothoven, 17, has been legally euthanised in the Netherlands, saying the pain she was dealing with after a childhood rape was “insufferable”.

Noa, from Arnhem, stated in a social media post only a day before her death last Sunday that she “breaths but no longer lives”.

Noa Pothoven, a Dutch teenager from Arnhem, has been legally euthanised after suffering a childhood rape. Picture: Instagram

Noa wrote an autobiography called Winning or Learning, after sexual assaults and rapes as a small girl led her to develop post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anorexia.

She was attacked three times as a youngster.

Noa Pothoven, a Dutch teenager from the Netherlands, wrote the memoir Winning or Learning. Picture: Instagram

The first two incidents were molestations when she attended children’s parties aged 11 and 12 before she was raped by two men when she was then 14yrs  in the Elderveld neighbourhood of the city.

For years she never revealed the horrific abuse because it left her feeling ashamed, Noa Pothoven said.

Noa Pothoven and her mother Lisette. Picture: Instagram

“I deliberated for quite a while whether or not I should share this, but decided to do it anyway,” she wrote. “Maybe this comes as a surprise to some, given my posts about hospitalisation, but my plan has been there for a long time and I am not doing this on impulse.

“I will get straight to the point: within a maximum of 10 days I will die. After years of battling and fighting, I am drained. I have quit eating and drinking for a while now, and after many discussions and evaluations, it was decided to let me go because my suffering is unbearable.”

Noa Pothoven as a young child. Picture: Supplied

“Out of fear and shame, I relive the fear, that pain every day. Always scared, always on my guard. And to this day my body still feels dirty.

“My house has been broken into, my body, that can never be undone. “

Noa spent her final hours saying goodbye to her heartbroken friends and family.

She asked them to “not convince me that this is not good, this is my decision and it is final.”

“Love is letting go, in this case,” she added.

She said her mother Lisette had “always been there for me” – however according to Dutch law, her mum did have a say in her daughter’s decision.

Last year, she revealed she had been admitted to hospital in a critical condition after her anorexia left her organs on the brink of failure.

Doctors placed her into a medically-induced coma to feed her through tubes.\

Noa Pothoven, a Dutch teenager from Arnhem. Picture: Instagram

Dutch minister Lisa Westerveld, who first made contact with Noa in December after her newspaper interview, visited the 17-year-old before she was euthanised.

She said: “It was nice to see her again. It is also very unreal. Noa was incredibly strong and very open. I will never forget her. We will continue her struggle. “

Children even as young as 12 can opt for euthanasia in the Netherlands but only after a doctor determines that the patient’s pain is unbearable.

Euthanasia is also legal in some US states, Canada and Belgium.

If you are experiencing mental health issues or suicidal feelings contact Lifeline on 13 11 14 or BeyondBlue 1300 224 636. If it is an emergency please call 000.

RELATED STORIES & LINKS

www.crimefiles.net

www.clublibido.com.au

www.auctiontraders.net

Henry Sapiecha